The Preschool PTSD Treatment manual (PPT) is a 12-session, manualized cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD in young children. The manual is publish by Guilford Press. (http://www.guilford.com/books/Treating-PTSD-in-Preschoolers/Michael-Scheeringa/9781462522330). Effectiveness and feasibility have been demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial (Scheeringa et al 2011). In 2013, the PPT manual was recognized in SAMHSA’s National Registry of Evidence-Based Program and Practices (NREPP) and the California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse (CEBC). The review of PPT can be found at http://nrepp.samhsa.gov/ViewIntervention.aspx?id=297.
The Trauma Recall Narrative Styles was created in 2013 as a way to categorize how patients recall their traumatic experiences during psychotherapy sessions. Modeled on analyses of actual psychotherapy sessions, the measure combines recall of detail, expression of emotions, and inaccurate memory to describe four categories: expressive, avoidant, undemonstrative, and fabricated. Click here for the Trauma Recall Narrative Styles definitions. Read More
The Diagnostic Infant and Preschool Assessment (DIPA) interview is one of the few psychiatric diagnostic interviews about very young children; it is the only one to have been tested in a clinical population, the only one to have tested functional impairment items (Scheeringa MS, Haslett, N, 2010. The reliability and criterion validity of the Diagnostic Infant and Preschool Assessment: A new diagnostic instrument for young children. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 41, 3, 299-312), and the only one to be updated for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5). The DIPA covers 16 disorders: PTSD, major depression, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, bipolar, ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, reactive attachment disorder, disinhibited social engagement disorder, sleep onset dyssomnia, and night waking dyssomnia. Since the 2010 study, the DIPA response choices have been changed from yes/no to Likert style ratings to provide better severity ratings with which to track clinical improvement over time. It has also been updated to DSM-5. Click here for the most recent version of the Diagnostic Infant & Preschool Assessment-Likert Version.
Download the DIPA Manual. The manual contains background information on the development of the DIPA interview, and instructions on scoring and use.
Arabic translation download (courtesy of Maha Emadeldin, Beni Suef University, Egypt).
Chinese version available from Jinsong Zhang, MD, PhD, Department of Medical Psychology, & Department of Child and Adolescent Healthcare, Xinhua Hospital Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Rd., Shanghai 200092, China firstname.lastname@example.org
Danish version available from Stine Rønholt, Videnscenter for Psykotraumatologi, Syddansk Universitet, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, www.psykotraume.dk
Dutch version is in the process of being published by Bohn Stafleu van Loghum|Springer Media.
French translation download (courtesy of Susanne Thümmler MD, PhD, Neuropédiatre Pédopsychiatre, Service Universitaire de Psychiatrie de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent Centre d'Evaluation Pédiatrique du Psychotrauma Centre, Ressources Autisme Hôpitaux Pédiatriques de Nice CHU-Lenval, 57 avenue de la Californie, 06200 Nice)
We are currently conducting a study with a new version of the DIPA that has been extensively revised to allow respondents to rate the severity of every symptom (as opposed to being limited to just a yes or no answer). This potentially gives the DIPA instrument a greater range of assessment sensitivity and greater power to detect changes over time (such as during psychotherapy). A new version of the DIPA with Likert-style ratings for each item is being tested. For this new version, contact email@example.com. Click here for the new Likert version.
Click here for a download of a list of the publications and posters that have used the DIPA.
The Young Child PTSD Checklist (Scheeringa, 2013) is a developmentally-sensitive checklist to assess PTSD in young children that is filled out by caregivers that includes a traumatic events page, 24 symptoms and 6 items of functional impairment. It has been updated for DSM-5. It is free in the public domain. Click here for this checklist. Click here for a Spanish version. Click here for a French version.
The Young Child PTSD Screen (Scheeringa, 2010) is a developmentally-sensitive screening tool for young children that is filled out by caregivers. It is a 6-item screen to quickly determine whether children need to be referred for clinical treatment for PTSD. A psychometric validation study of the YCPS was accepted for publication on Oct. 23, 2018: Scheeringa MS (in press). Development of a brief screen for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in young children: The Young Child PTSD Screen (YCPS). Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. Click here for this screen.
The Child PTSD Checklist (CPC) includes a traumatic events page, 21 symptoms and 6 items of functional impairment. It has been updated for DSM-5. It is free in the public domain. There is a parent/caregiver version (CPC-P) and a child version (CPC-C). Click here for the parent/caregiver version. Click here for the child version. Click here for a French version. Click here for a child Spanish version. Click here for a parent Spanish version.
The Child and Adolescent PTSD Screen (CAPS) is a six-item quick screener for PTSD (Scheeringa, 2010). Each item is scored on a 0-2 Likert scale. It also contains a 12-item traumatic event screen. There is a parent/caregiver version (CAPS-P) and a child version (CAPS-C). Click here for the parent/caregiver version. Click here for the child self-report version.
The Trauma and Behavioral Health Screen (TBH) is a multisyndrome self-administered scale that we created for the Louisiana Child Welfare Trauma Project (LCTP). It consists of items taken from five other instruments: (1) a menu of 10 types of traumatic events is from Dr. Scheeringa’s CPC; (2) 15 PTSD items are from the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (Foa, Johnson, Feeny, & Treadwell, 2001); (3) 17 items from the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (Borowsky, Mozayeny and Ireland, 2003); (4) three items from the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED, Birmaher, Khetarpal, Cully, Brent, & McKenzie, 1995); and (5) 11 items from the screen that it replaced, the Behavioral Health screen (BH-1; Louisiana Department of Children and Family Services).
The caregiver version contains 56 items. The child version contains 48 items.
The TBH yields four scale scores for (1) PTSD, (2) Internalizing, (3) ADHD, and (4) Externalizing. Validated cutoffs exist for each scale. Click here for the Trauma and Behavioral Health Screen
The Post-trauma Inventory of Parental Style (PIPS) is a 50-item instrument that measures how parents manage children’s PTSD reactions at home with particular emphasis on avoidance, sadness, re-traumatizing, and overprotective behavior. The PIPS was created as an alternative to the traditional methods of evaluating parenting styles in artificial laboratory observational situations and in recognition of the unique aspect that many children’s PTSD symptoms occur at home or in other settings where symptoms are triggered by reminders. The instrument can be self-administered or administered as an interview. Click here for a French version.
The Disaster Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) is a 21-item instrument that measures the wide variety of traumatic or stressful events that children can experience in disasters. It was created for the Hurricane Katrina disaster, but can be re-worded for other disasters. It has been used in at least two published studies: Scheeringa et al., 2008; Jaycox, Cohen et al., 2010.
The Fun Scale was developed in 2006 to have a quick and practical way to predict which caregivers with very young children would remain or drop out of therapy. This was driven by clinical experience that engagement and retention of young children and their caregivers in interventions for emotional and behavioral problems was a critical problem. Caregivers are rated by observation of five minutes of free play with their children. They are rated on three categories on the degree to which they appear to have fun with their children.
The Cooperation Scale was developed in 2010 as an extension of efforts to predict which patients will remain or drop out of therapy. Modeled on the concept of the Fun Scale to have a quick and practical measurement, youth or caregivers are rated by observation of five minutes of responding during a diagnostic interview. They are rated on five categories on the degree to which they cooperate with the interviewer.
Contact Dr. Scheeringa, firstname.lastname@example.org