Elizabeth Norton, PhD

Associate Professor

Department of Microbiology and Immunology
School of Medicine
Elizabeth Norton, PhD


Research Interests:

My research focuses on induction of protection immunity, typically focusing on mucosal immunity, infection, and adjuvants. My lab uses bacterial ADP-ribosylating enterotoxins derived from E. coli for the manipulation of protective immunity, including the novel adjuvants dmLT and LTA1. In addition, I am interested in host factors and biomarkers of protective immunity, including for dmLT-adjuvanted clinical trials, influenza vaccination, and now SARS-CoV-2 infection. For more information see https://nortonlab.tulane.edu.






  • Mucosal immunity
  • Immunologic mechanisms of vaccination
  • Enhancement of protective immunity with vaccine adjuvants


Schieffelin JS, Norton EB, Kolls JK. What should define a SARS-CoV-2 “breakthrough” infection?. J Clin Invest. 2021 Jun 15;131(12). doi: 10.1172/JCI151186. PubMed PMID: 33974565; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC8203469.

Stone AE, Scheuermann SE, Haile CN, Cuny GD, Velasquez ML, Linhuber JP, Duddupudi AL, Vigliaturo JR, Pravetoni M, Kosten TA, Kosten TR, Norton EB. Fentanyl conjugate vaccine by injected or mucosal delivery with dmLT or LTA1 adjuvants implicates IgA in protection from drug challenge. NPJ Vaccines. 2021 May 13;6(1):69. doi: 10.1038/s41541-021-00329-0. PubMed PMID: 33986280.

Huang Z, Ning B, Yang HS, Youngquist BM, Niu A, Lyon CJ, Beddingfield BJ, Fears AC, Monk CH, Murrell AE, Bilton SJ, Linhuber JP, Norton EB, Dietrich ML, Yee JK, Lai W, Scott JW, Yin XM, Rappaport J, Robinson JE, Saba NS, Roy CJ, Zwezdaryk KJ, Zhao Z, Hu TY. Sensitive tracking of circulating viral RNA through all stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection. J Clin Invest. 2021 Feb 9;. doi: 10.1172/JCI146031. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 33561010.

Motyka NI, Stewart SR, Hollifield IE, Kyllo TR, Mansfield JA, Norton EB, Clements JD, Bitoun JP. Elevated Extracellular cGMP Produced after Exposure to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Heat-Stable Toxin (ST) Induces Epithelial IL-33 Release and Alters Intestinal Immunity. Infect Immun. 2021 Jan 11;. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00707-20. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 33431701.

Baudier RL, Zwezdaryk KJ, Czarny-Ratajczak M, Kodroff LH, Sullivan DE, Norton EB. Unique Transcriptome Changes in Peripheral B Cells Revealed by Comparing Age Groups From Naive or Vaccinated Mice, Including snoRNA and Cdkn2a. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2020 Nov 13;75(12):2326-2332. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glaa165. PubMed PMID: 32609344; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7759738.

Liu S, Liu F, Zhang B, Yan P, Rowan BG, Abdel-Mageed AB, Steele C, Jazwinski SM, Moroz K, Norton EB, Wang A, Myers L, Sartor O, Zhang Q. CD4+ T helper 17 cell response of aged mice promotes prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. 2020 Jul;80(10):764-776. doi: 10.1002/pros.23990. Epub 2020 May 1. PubMed PMID: 32356608; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7310589.

Valli E, Baudier RL, Harriett AJ, Norton EB. LTA1 and dmLT enterotoxin-based proteins activate antigen-presenting cells independent of PKA and despite distinct cell entry mechanisms. PLoS One. 2020;15(1):e0227047. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227047. eCollection 2020. PubMed PMID: 31929548; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6957164.

Combs JA, Norton EB, Saifudeen ZR, Bentrup KHZ, Katakam PV, Morris CA, Myers L, Kaur A, Sullivan DE, Zwezdaryk KJ. Human Cytomegalovirus Alters Host Cell Mitochondrial Function during Acute Infection. J Virol. 2020 Jan 6;94(2). doi: 10.1128/JVI.01183-19. Print 2020 Jan 6. PubMed PMID: 31694945; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6955246.

Valli E, Harriett AJ, Nowakowska MK, Baudier RL, Provosty WB, McSween Z, Lawson LB, Nakanishi Y, Norton EB. LTA1 is a safe, intranasal enterotoxin-based adjuvant that improves vaccine protection against influenza in young, old and B-cell-depleted (μMT) mice. Sci Rep. 2019 Oct 22;9(1):15128. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-51356-w. PubMed PMID: 31641151; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6805908.

Maciel M Jr, Bauer D, Baudier RL, Bitoun J, Clements JD, Poole ST, Smith MA, Kaminski RW, Savarino SJ, Norton EB. Intradermal or Sublingual Delivery and Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Proteins Shape Immunologic Responses to a CFA/I Fimbria-Derived Subunit Antigen Vaccine against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 2019 Nov;87(11). doi: 10.1128/IAI.00460-19. Print 2019 Nov. PubMed PMID: 31427449; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6803349.

Norton EB. Altered responses to pneumococcal vaccination in an elderly diabetic Japanese vaccine trial: The risk of concurrent vaccination strategies. J Diabetes Complications. 2019 Mar;33(3):189-190. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2018.12.007. Epub 2018 Dec 21. PubMed PMID: 30651178.

Clements JD, Norton EB. The Mucosal Vaccine Adjuvant LT(R192G/L211A) or dmLT. mSphere. 2018;3(4). Epub 2018/07/27. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00215-18. PubMed PMID: 30045966.


For more information, visit Dr. Norton’s MyBibliography page

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